Philosophy of Science - Review Sheet

1. Be able to define induction. How would the premises have to be written for inductive logic to be true? What is gambler's fallacy? What is the inductivist turkey? What did David Hume have to say about this matter?

2. Know the major themes of the 'Peppered Moth' article.

3. What did Popper have to say about Hume's problem of induction? What are some weaknesses of falsification and be able to give examples from history of science. What is 'incommensurability'?

4. What did Lakatos think science was? Be able to use the words: research programme, hard core, protective belt, positive heuristic, problem shifts and empirical shifts.

5. What did Kuhn think science was? What is a paradigm shift? Know the answers to the questions from the article.

6. Discuss Feyerabend's anarchistic model of the scientific method. Know the answers to the article questions. What is pseudoscience?

7. What is the importance of publishing in science ? Give three examples of how problems in the publishing world could affect the purity of science. What does 'publish or perish' mean? How can publish or perish affect science? What rules did some major medical journals change regarding clinical trials for new prescription drugs?

8. What is the outcome of the dispute surrounding the Canadian Medical Association Journal and the reporting of Plan Bl?

9. What is ghostwriting? What are predatory journals? What problems may exist with peer review? Are there issues with gender bias in science? What is journalistic deficit disorder when reporting retractions in the popular press? Do science journals exhibit publication bias when selecting articles to publish? Is there a US effect in science? What is a meta-analysis?

10. Discuss how the government secrecy may influence good scientific practices. Relate this topic to some past issues at Health Canada. What percentage of R&D research in Canada is truly part of Popper's open society? Also, be familiar with recent issues surrounding 'whistleblower' legislation. Who is Dr. Chopra?

11. Why is replication so important for science? How is funding an important variable in science results?

12. What are some issues surrounding product testing? Specifically: BPA/BPS, nanoparticles, fracking, triclosan, herbicides, cosmetics, flame retardents, endocrine disruptors. Of what use is the website

13. What does iatrogenic mean? Give some examples. How prevelent are iatrogenic errors? What obstacles interfere with proper reporting of errors? What is the Michigan Model? What is the July Effect?

14. Read articles on the website which relate to the issues of marketing to doctors and medical school students, as well as advertising by pharmaceutical drug companies.

15. Read the article about clinical trials. What groups are often left out of clinical trials? How has Big Pharma tinkered with clinical trials in the past?

16. Explain the structures of a neuron and how neurons get excited or inhibited. Be able to draw a labelled diagram of a neuron. Also be able to relate the brain cell structures to electrical, physical, or chemical events. Understand what is going on in the synapse and how medications may affect it. Answer the questions from the TED video 'A Stroke of Insight'.

17. What is the triune brain? What are the learning implications of downshifting?

18. What is phantom pain? Relate it to proprioception and to mirror neurons. What is synesthesia? Know the questions from the video, "Secrets of the Mind".

19. What components make up emotional intelligece? Know two research studies for how EQ relates to each of: school, life, business.